For 1st order reactions [A]0/t1/2 is a constant
For 2nd order reaction [A]0 x t1/2 is a constant

Arrhenius Equation Problem

The Arrhenius equation describing the temperature dependence of the specific rate constant k for the reaction
X → Y
Use the formula:
Ignore the temperatures given and solve the equation for 500 degrees and 550 degrees.

Nuclear Fission Problem

You may use this formula for some of the problems.

When comparing the rate of a 1st o a order and doubling the reaction the rate = k[A][B]2

In the formula above after the = sign should be the ln[N2O5]0 not ln[N2O5]t

Rate increase

When a rate increases by a factor of:
use this to figure out the answer:
The reactant factor ^ to "X" power = the reaction rate increase
How to find the initial concentration when given the rate constant and the final concentration? natural log of the initial concentration = natural log of the concentration at a given time + rate constant x time ln[chemical]0 = ln[chemical]t + kt
When solving this get the number from the right of the "
=", then use inverse ln and put this number in.

For the Rate of reaction at a % complete

A 1st order reaction is 40% complete at the end of 50 minutes. What is the value of the rate constant in sec-1? In how many minutes will the reaction be 80% complete? Answer: [A] = [A]0 e-k’t

if A transformation is 40% complete at 50 minutes, [A]/[A]0 = .6 and t =50 minutes (3000 seconds) then k is:
(ln .6)/-3000 sec = 1.7x10-4 sec-1 at 80% completion, t is:

(ln .2)/ 1.7x10-4 sec-1 = 9467 sec (158 minutes)

For the pseudo-first-order Problem:

Slope Problem:

Videos:

Part of the Kinetics unit information has moved to Chapter 16 in the new book. Page 535-544. Read about entropy on page 546 when looking at entropy changes. For spontaneous reaction see the chart below.

## Table of Contents

## Kinetics

## Notes:

For 1st order reactions [A]0/t1/2 is a constantFor 2nd order reaction [A]0 x t1/2 is a constant

## Arrhenius Equation Problem

The Arrhenius equation describing the temperature dependence of the specific rate constant k for the reactionX → Y

Use the formula:

Ignore the temperatures given and solve the equation for 500 degrees and 550 degrees.

## Nuclear Fission Problem

You may use this formula for some of the problems.When comparing the rate of a 1st o a order and doubling the reaction the rate = k[A][B]2

In the formula above after the = sign should be the ln[N2O5]0 not ln[N2O5]t

## Rate increase

When a rate increases by a factor of:use this to figure out the answer:

The reactant factor ^ to "X" power = the reaction rate increase

How to find the initial concentration when given the rate constant and the final concentration?

natural log of the initial concentration = natural log of the concentration at a given time + rate constant x time

ln[chemical]0 = ln[chemical]t + ktWhen solving this get the number from the right of the "

=", then use inverse

lnand put this number in.## For the Rate of reaction at a % complete

A 1st order reaction is 40% complete at the end of 50 minutes. What is the value of the rate constant in sec-1? In how many minutes will the reaction be 80% complete?Answer:

[A] = [A]0 e-k’t

if A transformation is 40% complete at 50 minutes, [A]/[A]0 = .6 and t =50 minutes (3000 seconds) then k is:

(ln .6)/-3000 sec = 1.7x10-4 sec-1 at 80% completion, t is:

(ln .2)/ 1.7x10-4 sec-1 = 9467 sec (158 minutes)

## For the pseudo-first-order Problem:

## Slope Problem:

## Videos:

Part of the Kinetics unit information has moved to Chapter 16 in the new book. Page 535-544.Read about entropy on page 546 when looking at entropy changes.For spontaneous reaction see the chart below.For more information read the following.Vidoes:How to find order of reaction:Watch these Videos and answer these questions:and these questions from 16.1 and 16.2 videos:12.1a (Prom Date)Initial Rate Method

Catalysts/Mechanisms

Thermo Laws

Free Energy

Calcs and Thermo

Free Energy and Eq

16.2

## Notes: (don't use these unless desperate.)

## Labs:

Site to help with the Iodine Clock Reaction Lab.

Do Kinetics 2 instead of kinetics 6## Simulations: