03 Equations







Assignment:
You will do 1/3 of these problems. I will tell you which one to start with. Write BALANCED NET IONIC EQUATIONS!!

Notes:

Print the notes and this page.


Review the notes from the equations we did earlier. use the video below:
Solubility Rules:
---SOLUBILITY RULES are VERY important BUT remember that SOLIDS and GASES aren't soluble. They are solids not solutions.

Solubility_rules.png

Redox:

Never choose two from the oxidizers or two from the reducers (you should have one of each)
redox.png

Ligands

Reactions of Coordination compounds
These are called “complex” ions. (Though an ion is not always made). It involves adding a ligand to a 4th row transition metal, and a few other selected metals. There are many different ligands, but i this course we will only look at the most common. These include: ammonia (NH3), water, hydroxide (OH-), thiocynate (SCN-), and cyanide (CN-). The number of ligands that attach to the metal will almost always (in our case always) be double the amount of the charge on the metal. To determine the final charge add the total charge from the metal to the sum of the charges from all of the ligands.
Ag+ + NH3 ----> Ag(NH3)2+
Cu+2 + OH- ----> Cu(OH)4-2
Table of Common Ligands

Type
Charge
Ligand
Formula
Name in Complexes
monodentate
neutral
ammonia
NH3
ammine
water
H2O
aqua
carbon monoxide
CO
carbonyl




minus one
azide
N3-
azido
bromide
Br-
bromido
chloride
Cl-
chlorido
cyanide
CN-
cyanido
fluoride
F-
fluorido
hydroxide
OH-
hydroxido
nitrite
NO2-
nitrito
thiocyanate
SCN- or NCS-
thiocyanato
bidentate










minus two
carbonate
CO32-
carbonato
oxide
O2-
oxo
oxalate
C2O42-
oxolato
sulfate
SO42-
sulfato





Other General Ideas:

  1. When there is only one compound given, it probably a decomposition. Also, be on the look out for the reverse of these reactions.
  2. When the equation has acidified (or similar), it is most likely a redox reaction.
  3. A metal and a compound will be a replacement reaction that is also a redox.
  4. When you have ammonia, don't change it to ammonium hydroxide.
  5. Don't forget ligands.
  6. When a metal is added to water, watch for very active metals.*An acid with a hydroxide will produce a salt and water.
  7. Don't forget when H2CO3 is produced that it decomposes into H2O and CO2.
  8. When you have two compounds added to each other with the same anion, there will be a complex ion produced.
  9. Organic compounds (CH compounds) also will produce water. Whether they are reacting with oxygen (air) or with other organic compounds.
  10. Organic compounds with nonmetals do not ionize in water. Organic compounds with a metallic ion follow the solubility rules.
  11. When you have an organic compound like "hexane", the "hex" tells you the number of carbon atoms and the number of Hydrogen atoms is twice that number plus 2. CnHn+2 Common "ane" are methane has one carbon, ethane has 2 carbons, propane has 3 carbons, butane has 4 carbons, and the rest use the prefix to denote number like noted in the first part of this note.
  12. When you have an organic compound, most have a prefix that denotes number except methane, ethane, and propane which have one, two and three carbon atoms respectively.
  13. When the compound ends in "ene" then there are two less hydrogen atoms than noted above in number 10 (CnHn). If the name has "yne" then the formula is CnHn-2
  14. When you have an organic compound that ends in "ol" like ethanol, the ethane has two carbon atoms and one of the usual hydrogen atoms will be replaced with and "OH" ion. These are alcohols and always have an "OH" ion. So the formula in the bullet above is the same except one of the hydrogen atoms will be replaced with the hydroxide.
  15. Sulfur in its standard State is S8.
  16. Phosphorus in its standard state is P4.
  17. Electrolized equations read this two page file:

Reactions Condensed

reaction.png

Videos:

You have watched these earlier in the year. Watch these videos if you need to:
4
Reactions
Electrolytes & Non
Concentrations
Making Solns
4.1


Precip rxns
Acid-Base rxns
Other non-redox rxns
Complexation
4.2


Oxidation #s
Balancing Redox
4.3


Predicting Redox
4.4
Labs:
The labs for this unit come from the Acid/Base Titration unit.